Breed Improvement and Genetic Evaluation

CULLING AND REPLACEMENT RATES IN DAIRY HERDS IN CANADA

CULLING AND REPLACEMENT RATES IN DAIRY HERDS IN CANADA
COWS 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of herds enrolled on a milk recording program
Herds 9,273 9,039 8,585 8,299 7,827 7,246
Cows 698,686 696,737 694,265 691,743 703,143 661,638
Culling Reasons Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%)
Reproductive 49,815 17.3% 47,689 18.0% 44,016 17.7% 42,251 17.2% 39,772 17.3% 44,646 17.4%
Mastitis 35,695 12.4% 30,569 11.5% 29,151 11.7% 27,708 11.3% 24,695 10.8% 27,562 10.8%
Feet and leg problems 22,399 7.8% 19,666 7.4% 18,833 7.6% 17,643 7.2% 16,084 7.0% 17,861 7.0%
Low milk production 20,668 7.2% 19,159 7.2% 18,870 7.6% 17,650 7.2% 16,174 7.0% 19,785 7.7%
Sickness 14,156 4.9% 13,171 5.0% 12,677 5.1% 12,140 4.9% 11,841 5.2% 11,352 4.4%
Injury to udder/teats 2,872 1.0% 2,577 1.0% 2,168 0.9% 2,016 0.8% 1,835 0.8% 2,038 0.8%
Injury/Accident 10,333 3.6% 9,768 3.7% 9,667 3.9% 9,414 3.8% 9,161 4.0% 9,134 3.6%
Old age 6,053 2.1% 5,199 2.0% 5,088 2.0% 4,785 1.9% 4,498 2.0% 5,334 2.1%
Difficult calving 1,807 0.6% 1,754 0.7% 1,508 0.6% 1,520 0.6% 1,438 0.6% 1,434 0.6%
Bad temperament 2,402 0.8% 2,197 0.8% 1,847 0.7% 1,758 0.7% 1,501 0.7% 1,784 0.7%
Conformation 1,824 0.6% 1,767 0.7% 1,585 0.6% 1,502 0.6% 1,254 0.5% 1,550 0.6%
Displaced abomasum 1,175 0.4% 1,011 0.4% 892 0.4% 848 0.3% 841 0.4% 838 0.3%
Milk fever 1,373 0.5% 1,259 0.5% 1,165 0.5% 1,085 0.4% 1,075 0.5% 1,016 0.4%
Slow milker 1,816 0.6% 1,447 0.5% 1,348 0.5% 1,277 0.5% 1,076 0.5% 1,352 0.5%
Arthritis 997 0.3% 887 0.3% 838 0.3% 746 0.3% 709 0.3% 778 0.3%
Pneumonia 811 0.3% 786 0.3% 799 0.3% 903 0.4% 912 0.4% 970 0.4%
Staph aureus 774 0.3% 707 0.3% 570 0.2% 537 0.2% 458 0.2% 535 0.2%
Leukosis 637 0.2% 698 0.3% 627 0.3% 565 0.2% 511 0.2% 549 0.2%
Low fat 43 0.0% 57 0.0% 57 0.0% 71 0.0% 65 0.0% 111 0.0%
Paratuberculose 81 0.0% 89 0.0% 77 0.0% 57 0.0% 41 0.0% 48 0.0%
Low protein 36 0.0% 31 0.0% 21 0.0% 16 0.0% 8 0.0% 21 0.0%
Unknown 58,350 20.3% 50,555 19.1% 46,408 18.7% 50,524 20.6% 50,012 21.8% 60,552 23.6%
Total culling reasons 234,117 81.5% 211,043 79.7% 198,212 79.7% 195,016 79.4% 183,961 80.1% 209,250 81.7%
Culling Rate 33.51% 30.29% 28.55% 28.19% 26.16% 31.63%
Other Reasons for replacement Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%)
Sold for Production
Dairy production 36,856 12.8% 37,491 14.1% 35,085 14.1% 34,358 14.0% 30,861 13.4% 31,046 12.1%
Exported 1,929 0.7% 2,276 0.9% 2,239 0.9% 2,291 0.9% 1,488 0.6% 1,502 0.6%
Transfers 1,078 0.4% 976 0.4% 1,021 0.4% 859 0.3% 927 0.4% 788 0.3%
Rented out 664 0.2% 621 0.2% 420 0.2% 521 0.2% 598 0.3% 556 0.2%
Mortality
Poison 270 0.1% 240 0.1% 190 0.1% 218 0.1% 193 0.1% 204 0.1%
Peritonitis 296 0.1% 296 0.1% 260 0.1% 232 0.1% 273 0.1% 252 0.1%
Bloat 86 0.0% 110 0.0% 75 0.0% 79 0.0% 93 0.0% 82 0.0%
Electrocution 29 0.0% 12 0.0% 11 0.0% 11 0.0% 24 0.0% 13 0.0%
Others 11,815 4.1% 11,893 4.5% 11,061 4.4% 11,941 4.9% 11,233 4.9% 12,534 4.9%
Total other reasons for replacement 53,023 18.5% 53,915 20.3% 50,362 20.3% 50,510 20.6% 45,690 19.9% 46,977 18.3%
Total Replacement Rate1 41.10% 38.03% 35.80% 35.49% 32.66% 38.73%

1 Includes total culling reasons and total other reasons for replacement
Source: CanWest DHI and Valacta
Calculations done by AAFC-AID, Market Information Section

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