Breed Improvement and Genetic Evaluation

CULLING AND REPLACEMENT RATES IN DAIRY HERDS IN CANADA

CULLING AND REPLACEMENT RATES IN DAIRY HERDS IN CANADA
COWS 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Number of herds enrolled on a milk recording program
Herds 9,721 9,594 9,511 9,273 9,039 8,585
Cows 702,764 715,192 724,706 698,686 696,737 694,265
Culling Reasons Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%)
Reproductive 48,377 18.0% 45,481 17.6% 49,346 17.6% 49,815 17.3% 47,689 18.0% 44,016 17.7%
Mastitis 32,964 12.2% 30,029 11.6% 34,876 12.5% 35,695 12.4% 30,569 11.5% 29,151 11.7%
Feet and leg problems 21,682 8.0% 19,914 7.7% 21,761 7.8% 22,399 7.8% 19,666 7.4% 18,833 7.6%
Low milk production 18,372 6.8% 17,107 6.6% 19,696 7.0% 20,668 7.2% 19,159 7.2% 18,870 7.6%
Sickness 14,327 5.3% 13,810 5.3% 14,430 5.2% 14,156 4.9% 13,171 5.0% 12,677 5.1%
Injury to udder/teats 2,866 1.1% 2,441 0.9% 2,579 0.9% 2,872 1.0% 2,577 1.0% 2,168 0.9%
Injury/Accident 9,640 3.6% 9,656 3.7% 10,595 3.8% 10,333 3.6% 9,768 3.7% 9,667 3.9%
Old age 5,517 2.0% 5,415 2.1% 5,878 2.1% 6,053 2.1% 5,199 2.0% 5,088 2.0%
Difficult calving 1,849 0.7% 1,784 0.7% 1,729 0.6% 1,807 0.6% 1,754 0.7% 1,508 0.6%
Bad temperament 2,040 0.8% 1,770 0.7% 2,105 0.8% 2,402 0.8% 2,197 0.8% 1,847 0.7%
Conformation 1,508 0.6% 1,483 0.6% 1,607 0.6% 1,824 0.6% 1,767 0.7% 1,585 0.6%
Displaced abomasum 1,550 0.6% 1,453 0.6% 1,151 0.4% 1,175 0.4% 1,011 0.4% 892 0.4%
Milk fever 1,648 0.6% 1,586 0.6% 1,390 0.5% 1,373 0.5% 1,259 0.5% 1,165 0.5%
Slow milker 1,537 0.6% 1,292 0.5% 1,628 0.6% 1,816 0.6% 1,447 0.5% 1,348 0.5%
Arthritis 1,047 0.4% 990 0.4% 951 0.3% 997 0.3% 887 0.3% 838 0.3%
Pneumonia 695 0.3% 712 0.3% 703 0.3% 811 0.3% 786 0.3% 799 0.3%
Staph aureus 800 0.3% 734 0.3% 846 0.3% 774 0.3% 707 0.3% 570 0.2%
Leukosis 1,007 0.4% 885 0.3% 760 0.3% 637 0.2% 698 0.3% 627 0.3%
Low fat 82 0.0% 48 0.0% 62 0.0% 43 0.0% 57 0.0% 57 0.0%
Paratuberculose 75 0.0% 92 0.0% 79 0.0% 81 0.0% 89 0.0% 77 0.0%
Low protein 33 0.0% 38 0.0% 23 0.0% 36 0.0% 31 0.0% 21 0.0%
Unknown 50,073 18.6% 52,157 20.2% 55,702 19.9% 58,350 20.3% 50,555 19.1% 46,408 18.7%
Total culling reasons 217,689 80.8% 208,877 80.9% 227,897 81.5% 234,117 81.5% 211,043 79.7% 198,212 79.7%
Culling Rate 30.98% 29.21% 31.45% 33.51% 30.29% 28.55%
Other Reasons for replacement Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%)
Sold for Production
Dairy production 35,591 13.2% 34,548 13.4% 36,728 13.1% 36,856 12.8% 37,491 14.1% 35,085 14.1%
Exported 1,366 0.5% 1,291 0.5% 1,367 0.5% 1,929 0.7% 2,276 0.9% 2,239 0.9%
Transfers 698 0.3% 956 0.4% 850 0.3% 1,078 0.4% 976 0.4% 1,021 0.4%
Rented out 772 0.3% 665 0.3% 650 0.2% 664 0.2% 621 0.2% 420 0.2%
Mortality
Poison 331 0.1% 296 0.1% 280 0.1% 270 0.1% 240 0.1% 190 0.1%
Peritonitis 317 0.1% 341 0.1% 272 0.1% 296 0.1% 296 0.1% 260 0.1%
Bloat 102 0.0% 97 0.0% 80 0.0% 86 0.0% 110 0.0% 75 0.0%
Electrocution 29 0.0% 27 0.0% 29 0.0% 29 0.0% 12 0.0% 11 0.0%
Others 12,519 4.6% 11,059 4.3% 11,641 4.2% 11,815 4.1% 11,893 4.5% 11,061 4.4%
Total other reasons for replacement 51,725 19.2% 49,280 19.1% 51,897 18.5% 53,023 18.5% 53,915 20.3% 50,362 20.3%
Total Replacement Rate1 38.34% 36.10% 38.61% 41.10% 38.03% 35.80%

1 Includes total culling reasons and total other reasons for replacement
Source: CanWest DHI and Valacta
Calculations done by AAFC-AID, Market Information Section

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